THE EFFECT OF SHODHAN PROCESS ON TOXICITY OF UPAVISHA KUPEELU BEEJA (STRYCHNOS NUXVOMICA): A CRITICAL STUDY
Shukla Archana SubodhABSTRACT
The principle objectives of Ayurveda are to promote perfect health and to prolong life and to completely eradicate the disease and dysfunction of the body. Charaka opined that a deadly poison can become a very good medicine if it is administered in a proper way and with proper technique. Various processes of purification, especially for Visha and Upvisha,are mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. They are called as Shodhan sanskar (detoxification procedure). Shodhana is the process which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into a medicinally useful and harmless drug. Kupeelu beeja (Strychnos nuxvomica), a Sthavara vanaspatij visha contains spinal neurotoxic poison, strychnine. But pure Kupeelu beeja has many therapeutic properties as well. So, it is necessary to subject Kupeelu beeja to detoxification (Shodhana) process before using it as medicine. To prove the authenticity and safety of the use of purified and Shodhit Vishadravya (detoxified poisonous drugs), it must be subjected to modern parameters. In this article, attempt has been made to study the changes in phyto-chemical properties and LD50 values of Kupeelu beeja churna (Strychnos nuxvomica seed powder) due to Shodhan sanskar. The detoxification of Strychnos nuxvomica seeds was done by boiling it in cow’s milk for 3 hrs. Then the seeds coverings were scrapped and embryo was removed and dried. Thereafter, a fine powder was prepared and stored. This detoxified powder (Shodhit Kupeelu beeja churna) was used in studying phytochemical properties and animal experiment in comparison with the powder of non detoxified Strychnos nuxvomica seeds (Ashodhit Kupeelu beeja churna). The study revealed that the detoxification process of Strychnos nux vomica seed powder affects its physico-chemical properties. Shodhana process increases the value of LD50 of Kupeelu beeja churna. i.e. it reduces the toxicity of Kupeelu beeja churna. Thus the safety of the detoxified drug can be established.Keywords: Shodhana process, Kupeelu beeja, Strychnos nuxvomica, Toxicity.
Dr Shukla Archana Subodh, Associate Professor, Dept. of Agadtantra evum Vayvahar Ayurveda, S.R.C. Ayurveda College, Chikhali, Pune, Maharashtra, India.